Data Sources for Cancer InFocus
Data for Cancer InFocus were gathered from several publicly available sources. Due to automated data collection efforts, years on sources will change over time. The years given here represent the most recently available data, though the exact years available in a given Cancer InFocus application may vary depending on how recently the responsible institution has updated them.
Cancer Incidence and Mortality
State Cancer Profiles (SCP)
SCP is an interactive map engine produced in collaboration between the National Cancer Institute and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It was developed with the idea to provide a geographic profile of cancer burden in the United States and reveal geographic disparities in cancer incidence, mortality, risk factors for cancer, and cancer screening, across different population subgroups. The target audiences are health planners, policy makers, and cancer information providers who need quick and easy access to cancer related data and maps to inform and prioritize investments in cancer control.
Cancer incidence data from SCP used in Cancer InFocus comes from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER*Stat Database and from the National Program of Cancer Registries where applicable. The most recently available incidence data are the 5-year average age-adjusted rates per 100,00 people for 2015-2019.
Cancer mortality data from SCP used in Cancer InFocus comes from the National Vital Statistics System public use data file. The most recently available mortality data are the 5-year age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 people for 2016-2020.
Sociodemographic, Economic, and Housing & Transportation Factors
American Community Survey (ACS), 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau
ACS is a nationally representative sample of households that are randomly selected to participate. This survey provides population estimates of demographic information for various geographic areas, aggregated over five consecutive years.
Cancer InFocus contains the following indicators from the ACS:
|Indicator||ACS Table||Population Used|
|Under 18 Years Old||B01001||Total population|
|18 to 64 Years Old||B01001||Total population|
|Over 64 Years Old||B01001||Total population|
|Annual Labor Force Participation Rate||B23025||Population 16 years and over|
|Annual Unemployment Rate||B23025||Population 16 years and over|
|Insured||B27001||Civilian noninstitutionalized population|
|Did Not Attend High School||B15003||Population 25 years and over|
|Completed a Graduate Degree||B15003||Population 25 years and over|
|Graduated College||B15003||Population 25 years and over|
|Graduated High School||B15003||Population 25 years and over|
|Household Income ($)||B19013||Households|
|Vacant Housing||B25002||Housing units|
|Enrolled in Medicaid||C27007||Civilian noninstitutionalized population|
|No Household Vehicle Access||B08141||Workers 16 years and over in households|
|Living Below Poverty||B17026||Families|
|Total Population||B01001||Total population|
|Asian||B01001D||People who are Asian alone|
|Black||B01001B||People who are Black or African American alone|
|Hispanic||B01001I||People who are Hispanic or Latino|
|Other Non-Hispanic Races||B01001||Total population |
(calculated by subtracting other indicators)
|White||B01001H||White alone, not Hispanic or Latino population|
|High Rent Burden||B25070||Renter-occupied housing units|
|Uninsured||B27001||Civilian noninstitutionalized population|
The most recently available ACS data are the 2016-2020 5-year estimates.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
The BLS measures labor market activity, working conditions, price changes, and productivity in the U.S. economy to support public and private decision making. Cancer InFocus uses BLS to obtain the monthly unemployment rate (not seasonally adjusted). This data is updated monthly typically runs on a two month delay.
Screening & Risk Factors
PLACES is a collaboration between CDC, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the CDC Foundation. PLACES provides health data for small areas across the country. This allows local health departments and jurisdictions, regardless of population size and rurality, to better understand the burden and geographic distribution of health measures in their areas and assist them in planning public health interventions.
PLACES provides model-based, population-level analysis and community estimates of health measures to all counties, places (incorporated and census designated places), census tracts, and ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) across the United States.
Cancer InFocus contains the following indicators from the PLACES, which are based off of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System:
|Indicator||Most Recent Survey Variable Name||Most Recent Year Used|
|Currently Smoke (adults)||_RFSMOK3||2019|
|Had Pap Test in Last 3 Years, Age 21-65||_RFPAP34||2018|
|Met Breast Screening Recommendations||_MAM5022||2018|
|Met Colorectal Screening Recommendations||_CRCREC||2018|
|Obese (BMI over 30)||_BMI5CAT||2019|
Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA ERS)
The mission of USDA’s Economic Research Service is to anticipate trends and emerging issues in agriculture, food, the environment, and rural America and to conduct high-quality, objective economic research to inform and enhance public and private decision making. ERS research and analysis covers a broad range of economic and policy topics, including food/nutrition and poverty.
Cancer InFocus uses the indicator Food Deserts (LILA Vehicle) from the USDA ERS. The most recently available data is from 2015.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
The FCC regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. An independent U.S. government agency overseen by Congress, the Commission is the federal agency responsible for implementing and enforcing America’s communications law and regulations.
Cancer InFocus uses the FCC Form 477 broadband data on average maximum advertised upload and download speeds at the Census block group level. This data is updated twice yearly in June and December and runs about one year behind.
Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS)
The EPA’s SDWIS databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to monitor approximately 156,000 public water systems.
Cancer InFocus uses the indicator Public Water Systems Violations (Health Based) from the SDWIS. This data is aggregated from the most recently completed year back to 2016.
Facilities & Providers Data
Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health & Human Services
HRSA programs provide health care to people who are geographically isolated, economically or medically vulnerable. This includes people living with HIV/AIDS, pregnant women, mothers and their families, and those otherwise unable to access high quality health care. HRSA also supports access to health care in rural areas, the training of health professionals, the distribution of providers to areas where they are needed most, and improvements in health care delivery.
Cancer InFocus uses facility data for Federally-Qualified Health Centers (FQHC), FQHC Look-a-Likes (FQHC LAL), Rural Health Clinics (RHC), and Correctional Facility clinics. All of these facilities fall under the general classification of Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) facilities. This data is available in real-time, reflecting all such facilities currently recognized by HRSA.
Lung Cancer Screening Registry (LCSR), American College of Radiology
The ACR Lung Cancer Screening Registry (LCSR) is designed to systematically audit the quality of interpretation of screening lung CT exams. The registry is based on the ACR Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS), which is the product of the ACR Lung Cancer Screening Committee subgroup on Lung-RADS. This Lung-RADS system is a quality assurance tool designed to standardize lung cancer screening CT reporting and management recommendations, reduce confusion in lung cancer screening CT interpretations and facilitate outcome monitoring. The ACR LCSR will capture Lung-RADS recommendations and monitor and compare appropriate use of Lung-RADS
Cancer InFocus uses the location data for Lung Cancer Screening Sites from the LCSR. This data is available in real-time, reflecting active lung cancer screening locations in the LCSR.
Note: Not all lung cancer screening sites are required to be a part of the LCSR. The ACR estimates that the LCSR reflects between 80%-90% of all active sites in the nation.
National Plan & Provider Enumeration System (NPPES)
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services CMS has developed the NPPES to assign unique identifiers to health care providers. The National Provider Indentifier (NPI) has been the standard identifier for all HIPAA-covered entities (health care providers) since May 23, 2007. Small health plans were required to obtain and use an NPI by May 23, 2008.
Cancer InFocus uses the location data for gastroenterologists and colon & rectal surgeons from the NPPES. This data is available in real-time, reflecting all practicing providers.
United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The Mammography Quality Standards Act requires mammography facilities across the nation to meet uniform quality standards. Congress passed this law in 1992 to assure high-quality mammography for early breast cancer detection, which can lead to early treatment, a range of treatment options, and increased chances of survival. Under the law, all mammography facilities must: 1) be accredited by an FDA-approved accreditation body, 2) be certified by FDA, or its State, as meeting the standards, 3) undergo an annual MQSA inspection, and 4) prominently display the certificate issued by the agency.
Cancer InFocus uses the location data for Mammography Sites from the FDA Certified Mammography Facilities list. This data is updated on a weekly basis to reflect real-time presence of mammography facilities.