Data Sources

Data for the Kentucky Cancer Needs Assessment were gathered from several Federal and state-level sources. Indicators presented on Cancer InFocus: Kentucky have been noted by their source.


Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Survival Rates

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

SEER is an authoritative source of information on cancer incidence and survival in the United States. SEER currently collects and publishes cancer incidence and survival data from population-based cancer registries covering approximately 48% of the U.S. population. The Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) has been reporting cancer incidence and mortality data from Kentucky into the SEER program since 2001.

Incidence and mortality are reported as age-adjusted rates per 100,000 people in the population over a 5-year period. Relative survival is reported as the percentage of individuals with a cancer diagnosis still living 5-years after diagnosis compared to a general population of those without a cancer diagnosis, aggregated over a 7-year period. Rates for areas are suppressed when there are fewer than 10 cases or deaths during the reporting period.

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky contains all sex, all race incidence and mortality rates for the following sites: all cancer sites; anus, anal canal and anorectum; brain & other nervous system; breast (female); cervix uteri (female); colon & rectum; corpus uteri (female); kidney & renal pelvis; leukemia; liver & intrahepatic bile duct; lung & bronchus; melanoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; oral cavity & pharynx; ovary (female); pancreas; prostate (male); stomach; thyroid; and urinary bladder.


Sociodemographic Factors

American Community Survey (ACS), 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

ACS is a nationally representative sample of households that are randomly selected to participate. This survey provides population estimates of demographic information for various geographic areas, aggregated over five consecutive years.

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky contains the following indicators from the American Community Survey:

IndicatorACS Table UsedPopulation Used
Age – Under 18B01001Total population
Age – 18 to 64B01001Total population
Age – 65 or OlderB01001Total population
Annual Labor Force Participation RateB23025Population 16 years and over
Annual Unemployment RateB23025Population 16 years and over
Any Insurance CoverageB27001Civilian noninstitutionalized population
Education – Did Not Attend High SchoolB15003Population 25 years and over
Education – Earned Advanced or Professional DegreeB15003Population 25 years and over
Education – Graduated CollegeB15003Population 25 years and over
Education – Graduated High SchoolB15003Population 25 years and over
Household IncomeB19013Households
Housing Vacancy RateB25002Housing units
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient)B19083Households
Medicaid EnrollmentC27007Civilian noninstitutionalized population
No Vehicle AccessB08141Workers 16 years and over in households
Percentage below PovertyB17026Families
Population – TotalB01001Total population
Race/Ethnicity – AsianB01001DPeople who are Asian alone
Race/Ethnicity – BlackB01001BPeople who are Black or African American alone
Race/Ethnicity – HispanicB01001IPeople who are Hispanic or Latino
Race/Ethnicity – Non-Hispanic Other RacesB01001Total population
(calculated by subtracting other indicators)
Race/Ethnicity – WhiteB01001HWhite alone, not Hispanic or Latino population
Rent Over 40% of IncomeB25070Renter-occupied housing units
UninsuredB27001Civilian noninstitutionalized population

Note: The Urbanized Residents indicator was derived from the 2010 Decennial Census

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky use the indicator Monthly Unemployment Rate from the BLS.

Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF)

Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services (KY CHFS)


Behavioral Risk Factors

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

BRFSS is a representative survey of adults in all states that collects data about health-related risk behaviors, use of preventive services, and chronic health conditions. The Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (KyBRFS) is the state-specific version of the BRFSS for Kentucky, administered by the Kentucky Department for Public Health..

Percentage estimates from BRFSS and KyBRFS are aggregated over the past two years of consecutive data from annual surveys. Estimates for areas are suppressed if their Relative Standard Error (RSE) exceeds 0.3 or the sample size is less than 30.

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky contains the following indicators from the KyBRFS:

IndicatorMost Recent Survey Variable NameMeasurement Frequency
Breast Screening RateMAM5022Every other year (even)
Colorectal Screening RateCRCRECEvery other year (even)
Currently SmokeSMOKER3Every year
Had Pap in Last 3 YearsRFPAP34Every other year (even)
Obese (BMI over 30)BMI5CATEvery year
Physically InactivePACAT2Every other year (odd)
Unhealthy DrinkingRFDRHV7 and RFBING5Every year

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

YRBSS is a self-administered national school-based survey system that collects data regarding health-related risk behaviors among 9th through 12th grade students.

National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

NIS-Teen is an annual, nationally representative phone survey that collects immunization information on adolescents aged 13-17 years living in the U.S. and verifies immunization histories from health care providers.

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Environmental Factors

Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA ERS)

The mission of USDA’s Economic Research Service is to anticipate trends and emerging issues in agriculture, food, the environment, and rural America and to conduct high-quality, objective economic research to inform and enhance public and private decision making. ERS research and analysis covers a broad range of economic and policy topics, including food/nutrition and poverty.

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky uses the indicator Food Deserts (LILA Vehicle) from the USDA ERS.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. An independent U.S. government agency overseen by Congress, the Commission is the federal agency responsible for implementing and enforcing America’s communications law and regulations.

Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS)

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky uses the indicator Public Water Systems Violations since 2016 (Health Based) from the SDWIS.

County Health Rankings and Roadmaps (CHRR), National Center for Health Statistics

National Flood Hazard Layer, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA NFHL)


Community Health Systems

Commission on Cancer (CoC), American College of Surgeons

Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health & Human Services

Lung Cancer Screening Registry (LCSR), American College of Radiology

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky uses the location data for Lung Cancer Screening Sites from the LCSR.

National Plan & Provider Enumeration System (NPPES)

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky uses the location data for GI Providers from the NPPES.

United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Cancer InFocus: Kentucky uses the location data for Mammography Sites from the FDA.


Suggested citation: 2021 Kentucky Cancer Needs Assessment: The Story of Cancer in Kentucky. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, Markey Cancer Center; 2022.